Covid-19 Vaccination, Testing And Quarantine Rules By Country

Covid-19 Vaccination, Testing And Quarantine Rules By Country

The last hurrahs of summer are bringing more travel complications, as countries are increasingly deluged with rising daily infection rates of Covid-19 and specifically, the tricky Delta variant:

  • The U.S. has been removed from the EU’s safe list for non-essential travel because its daily infection rate is far higher than the 75 daily cases per 100,000 people needed over a 14-day period to stay on this list–Israel was also removed.
  • It was a move seen by some to be valid, not only because of rising rates in the U.S. but also because the EU is neck and neck with the U.S. on vaccination rates and because of the continued lack of reciprocity from the U.S. in rescinding the travel ban which has been place since March 2020–airlines now fear a November opening.
  • As noted by CNN, the reopening of the U.S. to EU and U.K. tourists will have been further delayed by what many perceive to be a debacle in how the U.S. withdrew from Afghanistan–”Biden can’t afford any more missteps. Even a small chance of letting some new variant onto U.S. soil is probably not worth the risk.” 
  • For vaccinated Americans, this won’t change travel restrictions that much, but for unvaccinated Americans, some EU countries have already updated policy and downgraded American arrivals, enforcing quarantine, e.g. Italy. Others are placing U.S. travelers on a par with EU arrivals, e.g. Belgium. Some, such as France, have yet to announce any changes.

The entire bloc is using the EU Digital Covid Certificate to allow unrestricted travel across the EU and Schengen area countries and most are using a green pass for access to public spaces, restaurants, gyms, etc. even for tourists, such as Austria and France.

Here is the list of vaccination and quarantine requirements for each of the EU countries (plus Schengen and the U.K.) for September, as of updates made on 31 August:

Austria—extra restrictions to eat out in Vienna

In the capital, Vienna, additional restrictions are in place from 1 September for the unvaccinated who wish to eat out in restaurants or bars–PCR tests are only valid for 48 hours (not 72) and antigen tests for 24 hours (instead of 48).

Travelers from the safe list may enter, showing either a negative Covid-19 test or proof of vaccination/past infection upon entry. This list is most of Europe and the EU list of safe countries. Unvaccinated arrivals from Cyprus and Spain must show a PCR test (not antigen) taken within the past 72 hours.

There are also tighter restrictions for arrivals from areas where there are virus variants, where people must arrive with a negative PCR test and quarantine for ten days: Brazil, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Uruguay, and Zimbabwe. They must also apply for pre-travel clearance.

Anyone else can enter if they are vaccinated–if not, they too must have pre-travel clearance, show a PCR or antigen test and self-isolate for ten days (testing out at day five with a negative test result).

Belgium—U.S. arrivals treated as EU red zone residents

Belgium color-codes countries to determine travel restrictions as per ECDC recommendations and most of the EU and Schengen area are currently green, as well as some third-party countries: Albania, Australia, New Zealand, Ukraine, Singapore, South Korea, Japan, North Macedonia, Serbia, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Qatar and Saudi Arabia.

There are very many regions across the EU however that are labelled orange at present as well as some countries: Albania, Japan, Serbia, Armenia, Brunei Darussalam, Jordan, and Qatar.

There are many parts of Europe that are currently labelled red and ‘high risk’ as well as some countries that were previously orange or green: the U.S., Israel, Lebanon, North Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Kosovo and Montenegro. These latter countries that were on the EU safe list are now considered red zones on the white list.

All other countries not on these lists are red.

Travelers arriving from green or orange zones do not need to quarantine or take a further mandatory test for Covid-19.

Travelers from within the EU, arriving from a red zone, need to have a negative PCR Covid-19 test result taken within 72 hours before arrival and must test again on day 7 but no quarantine is necessary–vaccinated EU arrivals do not need to get tested or quarantine. This rule now applies to travelers from the red zones on the white list, i.e. the U.S. and Israel.

Travelers from outside the EU, arriving from a red zone: vaccinated travelers must get tested on day one or two and stay in quarantine until they have a negative result. Unvaccinated travelers must arrive with a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours before arrival, must quarantine for ten days and test on day one and day seven of their trip.

If people must travel, they must fill in a a “Public Health Passenger Locator Form” 48 hours before arrival.

Bulgaria—red EU countries must also take PCR test

Bulgaria is now following the ECDC’s traffic light system of countries which are low, medium and high risk and EU/Schengen residents can use the EU Digital Covid Certificate.

Green list arrivals can enter freely but must go into a ten-day quarantine or have proof of a negative PCR/antigen test result if they don’t show their EU Digital Covid Certificate–Austria, Germany, Estonia, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Finland, Croatia, Italy, Norway, San Marino, the Vatican City State, Czechia, Luxembourg and Romania.

Orange list countries are all EU and EEA Member States that are not listed in the green or the red list.  Arrivals can enter with EU digital Covid Certificates without quarantine but may be subject to random antigen tests.

Red EU countries are currently Cyprus, Spain and the U.K., and arrivals must have proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours before departure and a valid EU Digital Covid Certificate.

From outside the EU, everyone is required to take a PCR test 72 hours before arrival and for the result to be negative.

Croatia—negative tests needed for vaccinated Brits

Croatia is following the ECDC’s traffic light system and the EU Digital Covid Certificate for access into the country and currently, anyone who is not arriving from a red or dark red EU/Schengen country can enter with their certificate or proof that they have been vaccinated, are negative or have had Covid-19.

A 14-day quarantine applies to travelers from South Africa, Zanzibar (Tanzania) and Brazil as well as needing a PCR test taken no more than 48 hours before arrival.

Passengers from the U.K., Cyprus, the Russian Federation or India, regardless of whether or not they have been vaccinated, need a negative antigen test result (no more than 48 hours old) or a negative PCT test result (72 hours). This also applies to red or dark red EU/Schengen area countries according to the ECDC map.

Anyone else arriving for tourism can enter if they can show proof of paid accommodation for the entirety of their stay upon arrival and also one of the following: proof of vaccination in the past 270 days, proof that they have had Covid-19, proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours before arrival at the Croatian border or go straight into a ten day quarantine.

All travelers must complete the Enter Croatia web form before arrival. 

Cyprus—fewer green and orange countries, more red

Cyprus’ borders are open to anyone who has been vaccinated with an EU-approved vaccine and also the Sputnik (Gam-COVID-Vac) or the Sinopharm (BBIBP COVID-19) vaccine and anyone who can prove to have had Covid-19 in the past 180 days.

All passengers must fill in a Cyprus Health Pass upon arrival.

For all unvaccinated travelers, Cyprus has three categories of countries–green, orange and red–with distinct rules surrounding quarantine and testing requirements:

There are now 11 countries on the green list, the most epidemiologically sound where no quarantine is needed nor a negative Covid-19 test: Australia, Czech Republic, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hungary, Jordan, Monaco, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Singapore and Slovakia.

The orange list, from which people must arrive with proof of a negative Covid-19 test result: Austria, Bahrain, Canada, China, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Macao, Norway, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Slovenia. The U.S. is no longer on this list.

Arrivals from the red list can only enter with a negative Covid-19 test result and they must take another upon arrival, which is at their own cost: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, France, Georgia, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, the Netherlands, North Macedonia, Portugal, the Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the UAE, the U.K. and the U.S.–if the PCR test result upon arrival is positive, passengers must quarantine.

Anyone else is on the grey list from which arrivals must enter a 14-day quarantine.

Czech Republic—U.S. now considered very high risk

Anyone arriving must fill in the arrival form.

Anyone showing proof of vaccination or having had Covid-19 in the past 180 days or children aged 6-12 do not need to test or self-isolate.

For the unvaccinated, travel requirements follow the ECDC’s traffic light system, where arrivals are grouped into traffic light colours, with red being the most at risk.

Travelers from green areas (low risk) can enter the Czech Republic without restrictions and unvaccinated people must have proof of a negative RAT or PCR test either before or after arrival. As of 30 August 2021 these are: Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Hong Kong, Japan, Jordan, Canada, Qatar, Korea, Macao, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Serbia, Taiwan, and Vatican City.

Travelers from orange areas can enter but must be in possession of a negative Covid-19 test result (antigen or PCR) but once again, vaccinated travelers are exempt. As of 30 August these countries are: Austria. Finland, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, San Morino and Slovenia.

The criteria for arrivals from red and dark red zones is the same, but in addition, the first test upon arrival must be a PCR, people must enter quarantine and take a second PCR test on arrival. There are currently many more places in this category: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Ireland, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Portugal, Greece, Germany, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

All other EU and non-EU countries are currently categorised as dark red, so they must follow rules for very high risk zones–this now includes the U.S.

Denmark—two traffic light systems in place

As of 28 August, the following EU countries were categorised as being green: Croatia, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary as well as several regions of Europe: France (Mayotte), Italy (Piemonte, Valled’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste, Lombardia, Abruzzo, Molise, Puglia, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Bozen, Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Friuli-Venezia Giulia), Norway (Nordland, Innlandet, Agder, Trøndelag, Troms og Finnmark), Sweden (Sydsverige, Västsverige), Germany (Schlewig-Holstein), Austria (Burgenland, Niederösterreich, Kärnten).

There are currently no EU countries labelled as red and all other EU countries/regions are currently yellow.

For countries outside the EU, the traffic light system classifies countries as yellow, orange or red (there is no green category). As of 14 August, yellow countries were: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Australia, Bosnia-​Herzegovina, Brunei, Canada, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Ukraine, the U.S. and Qatar.

There are no red-listed countries and all other countries are classified as orange.

Anyone who can show proof of vaccination from a European Medicines Agency-approved vaccine or proof of having had Covid-19 can bypass all testing and quarantine requirements, unless they are coming from a red country/zone. In this case, they would need to test before and upon arrival, enter into quarantine and have a worthy reason for entering the country.

For unvaccinated travelers, everyone must test before arrival and travelers from green and yellow listed countries don’t need a worthy reason to enter not do they need to self-isolate.

Estonia—unvaccinated U.S. must now quarantine

Vaccinated people can travel to Estonia and bypass all testing and quarantine requirements (travelers are also exempt if they have had Covid-19).

Within the EU, green-list countries (with infection rates lower than 75 daily cases per 100,000 people over 14 days) are currently the Czech Republic, the Holy See, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Unvaccinated people can enter without testing or quarantine. Outside the EU, the following countries are considered green and the same rules apply: Australia, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and the Ukraine.

Within the EU, orange-list countries (with infection rates between 75.1-200 daily cases per 100,000 people over 14 days) are: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, San Morino, Slovenia and Sweden. Arrivals must enter with a negative test result or take a test upon arrival. No quarantine is required.

Within the EU/Schengen/U.K., red-list countries (with infection rates higher than 200 daily cases per 100,000 people over 14 days) are Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the U.K. Travelers must arrive with a negative test result or test upon entry and enter a ten-day quarantine (testing out is possible with a test on day 6, or slightly earlier if the test was taken prior to arrival and there is still 6 days between the two).

Outside the EU, the following countries are classified as red and therefore, subject to the same quarantine rules: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia Herzegovina, Brunei, Canada, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Qatar, Russia, Serbia and the U.S.

For all other countries not listed in any other list, people who have had Covid-19 must have a negative test result, travelers must have a special reason to travel and must enter quarantine if they are not vaccinated, as per red-list countries.

Finland—unvaccinated U.S. not allowed entry

Since 26 July, anyone from any country who is vaccinated or who has had Covid-19 can enter. As per website instructions, the certificate needs to be in either English, Finnish or Swedish but they will allow certified translations to be used as a certificate. The certificate can also be an EU digital Covid certificate.

As of 23 August and until 19 September, there are no more internal border controls in the Schengen zone meaning that EU/Schengen residents can travel freely, using the EU Digital Covid Certificate. This also applies to the EU safe list countries.

If travelers are not vaccinated and coming from outside the EU/Schengen area, such as from Russia, the U.K. or the U.S., there are very strict travel measures still in place and people can only travel for essential reasons.

France—health pass extended to employees and minors

Since 9 August, everyone who wanted to eat or drink in a restaurant or bar or attend a cultural event, such as the cinema, has had to prove they do not have Covid-19 (either through vaccination or a negative test) using an application on their phone–the Pass Sanitaire (health pass). From 30 August, this also applies to full-time employees of companies that operate these spaces, i.e. restaurant workers and from 30 September, this rule will apply to minors aged 12-17.

Anyone who is vaccinated can arrive into the country with proof–minors do not need to be vaccinated but children over the age of 12 must have a certificate showing negative Covid PCR results.

Everyone must also sign a sworn declaration that they have no symptoms and have not–to their knowledge–been in contact with anyone who has in the past 14 days.

For unvaccinated travelers, there are three color codes with different rules that apply.

Green countries are those in the European Union, Andorra, the Holy See, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Norway, San Marino and Switzerland, as well as Albania, Australia, Bahrain, Bosnia, Brunei, Canada, Comoros Islands, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Montenegro, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Ukraine, the U.S. and Vanuatu.

From a green country, everyone aged over 12 must present a negative Covid-19 PCR or RAT test result not taken more than 72 hours before boarding. However, rules have been updated recently to reduce this time to 24 hours for people traveling from Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Spain, the Netherlands or Portugal.

Red list countries are Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Maldives, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Seychelles, South Africa, Suriname, and Tunisia. Travelers must have an essential reason for travel, arrive with proof of a negative Covid-19 test result (RAT or PCR), be tested upon arrival and enter quarantine, which will be overseen by security forces.

All other countries are considered orange. Arrivals from orange countries must have a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours or a negative RAT test taken within 48 hours upon arrival. (This has been reduced to 24 hours for all U.K. arrivals, for both sorts of tests). Arrivals might be subject to random testing and everyone must pledge to self-isolate for 7 days.

Germany—quarantine from U.S./high-risk areas

No pandemic-related travel restrictions currently apply to travellers entering Germany from member states of the European Union or from Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Iceland. This is also true for the following non-EU countries: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Jordan, Macao, Moldova, New Zealand, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and the Ukraine.

Fully vaccinated travelers from anywhere can enter and those who are not would need proof of testing negative via a PCR test in the 72 hours before arrival or 48 hours for a RAT test. Everyone must fill out a Digital Registration Form and there is testing taking place upon arrival.

However, a ten to fourteen-day quarantine is currently in place for people traveling from or through what the country deems a ‘high-risk’ or ‘variants of concern’ area–the latest list dated 27 August provides details on current areas of concern. This list includes a large number of countries, and the U.S. has been one of them, since 15 August.

Greece—multiple vaccines accepted

Greece has open borders, without the need to quarantine, to the following countries: EU & Schengen Area countries, the U.S., the U.K, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, the UAE, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea, Thailand, Rwanda, Singapore, the Russian Federation, North Macedonia, Canada, Belarus, Bahrein, Brunei, Qatar, China, Kuwait, Ukraine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Saudi Arabia.

Non-EU citizens are advised to travel on direct flights and all passengers must fill in a Passenger Locator Form (PLF) and if they don’t have proof of vaccination, they must have taken a Covid-19 PCR test and received a negative result no more than 72 hours before departure, a negative RAT test result taken no more than 48 hours before arrival or proof of having had Covid-19 in the past 30-180 days. Arrivals may also be subject to random testing.

Air travellers arriving from Egypt, Albania, Argentina, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Brazil, Georgia, Cuba, the UAE, India, China, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, and Turkey–regardless of citizenship–will have to take a test upon arrival at the airport.

Accepted vaccines are Pfizer BioNtech, Moderna, Astra Zeneca/Oxford, Novavax, Johnson + Johnson/Janssen, Sinovac Biotech, Gamaleya (Sputnik), Cansino Biologics, and Sinopharm.

Hungary—open to Covid Certificates or negative tests

Anyone arriving with a valid EU Digital Covid Certificate can enter without additional testing requirements or quarantine restrictions.

From 9 August there aren’t any restrictions for passengers arriving into Hungary with a negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before arrival. The test must be taken in an EU, OECD, NATO member state or Russia, China, the UAE, Bahrain, or a Turkic Council member state (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Uzbekistan).

Iceland—every visitor must have negative test result

Anyone can enter Iceland if they can show proof of having been vaccinated (obviously twice, with a two-dose vaccine) or having had Covid-19. All vaccinated people still need to arrive with proof of a negative result (PCR or RAT) but beginning August 30, passengers recovered from Covid-19 who have proof of a positive PCR test taken 14 to 180 days prior to the flight do not have to supply a negative test to board.

For the unvaccinated, travelers will need to arrive with a negative PCR test result taken within 72 hours of arrival. Travelers will then need to test upon arrival, enter a five-day quarantine and then test to exit.

For the unvaccinated, anyone from EEA/EFTA countries (EU member states plus Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) are welcome, plus several third party country residents, such as those in proven relationships with Icelandic individuals, for over six months.

As of 25 August, residents from the following third party countries are allowed to visit: Albania, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong (SAR), Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Macao (SAR), Moldova, Montenegro, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Ukraine and the U.S.

Ireland—quarantine for non-EU, unvaccinated

All arrivals must fill out a Passenger Locator Form before entry into Ireland. Where possible, arrivals should use the EU Digital Covid Certificate. 

People from inside the EU+ area can travel without quarantine or testing if they can show evidence of having had Covid-19 in the past 180 days or having been vaccinated against it or show a negative PCR test result, taken no more than 72 hours before arrival.

From outside the EU+ area (and this now includes the U.K.), vaccinated passengers and people who can prove they have had Covid-19 in the past 180 days do not need to do anything else. Unvaccinated travelers from outside the EU+ area must show results for PCR testing taken within 72 hours before arrival, and quarantine for 14 days (people can ‘test out’ after day 5 with a negative result).

Travelers from some countries must enter a 14-day mandatory hotel quarantine–the list is updated regularly–but as of August 31, there are no countries in North America or Europe on this list.

Italy—U.S. unvaccinated must now quarantine

Travelers are welcome from Schengen/EU countries, called List C countries–arrivals must show proof of a negative Covid-19 test (both PCR or RAT are acceptable) with a validity of 48 hours or a vaccination certificate or proof of having had Covid-19–otherwise, a 5-day quarantine is required. The use of the EU Digital Covid Certificate is advised.

From 31 August, British arrivals can also enter without quarantine if they can show they have been vaccinated and can show a negative PCR or antigen test result taken within the last 48 hours.

Travelers from safe-list countries (List D) can enter with a vaccination certificate AND a negative antigen or PCR test result taken in the past 48 hours. If they don’t have both, they must enter a five-day quarantine.

Travelers from high-risk countries cannot visit except for essential reasons. 

Visitors from the U.S., Japan, Canada and Israel have been placed on a new list that will last until at least 25 October. These arrivals must have a negative Covid-19 test result, taken no more than 72 hours before arrival (antigen or PCR) even if they are vaccinated or have had Covid-19 in the past 180 days. The unvaccinated must enter a five-day quarantine, even if the Covid-19 test result is negative.

As reported by The Local, this change particularly affects U.S. arrivals. Up until 31 August, they could arrive into Italy, by providing a negative test result (or a vaccination certificate). Now they must produce an additional negative test result, if vaccinated, and enter quarantine, if not.

Latvia—U.S. vaccinated allowed entry

All arrivals must fill in an electronic form 48 hours before arriving in the country and the country is using a green pass to access restaurants, bars and other spaces.

Vaccinated travelers arriving from low-risk and high-risk EU+ countries as well as high risk non-EU countries don’t need to test or quarantine.

Unvaccinated travelers from low-risk EU countries do need to test before travel and upon entering but quarantine is not needed. The same is true for arrivals from high-risk EU countries but self-isolation is required.

Unvaccinated passengers are not allowed to enter for tourist reasons from high-risk, non-EU countries and would need to test before and upon arrival and quarantine, if they were coming for essential reasons.

Finally, anyone from a VERY high-risk country, EU or non-EU, vaccinated or not, is not allowed to travel for non-essential reasons, would need to test before and upon arrival and must quarantine. This currently includes many countries and most vaccinated travelers cannot visit, because they do not have a vaccine certificate that was issued in the EU, the EEA countries, Switzerland or the U.K.

However, as of 1 September, the Latvian government has voted to recognise the vaccine certificates of the U.S. Australia, Israel, New Zealand and Canada.

Lithuania—U.S. travelers must quarantine

Travel is extremely limited into and around the country although EU/Schengen area residents are allowed to enter using an EU Digital Covid Certificate. Passengers from green and orange countries (as per ECDC maps) must show evidence of a negative Covid-19 test upon arrival and orange country arrivals must also test again 3-5 days after arrival.

Arrivals from red, dark red or gray countries must show a negative PCR or antigen test (for people aged 16 years or older) and then enter a ten-day quarantine, with the ability to ‘test out’ on day seven. The U.S. is currently on the red list, as are many other countries.

Luxembourg—open to EU+ countries and U.S.

Luxembourg is allowing EU/Schengen area visitors as well as third-party nationals which have been approved at the EU level–Albania, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, China (subject to confirmation of reciprocity at EU level), Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Montenegro, New Zealand, Qatar, Moldova, North Macedonia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Ukraine and the U.S.–this is valid until 30 September 2021. Anyone else is not allowed to enter.

All arrivals must show a vaccination certificate, proof of having had Covid-19 or proof of a negative Covid-19 test result to enter the country (either PCR within 72 hours or antigen within 48 hours)–in line with the EU Digital Covid Certificate.

Luxembourg is also following other EU countries and instigating a green pass for access to cultural events and restaurants.

Malta—only vaccinated can enter without quarantine

Malta is operating a system of green, amber, red and dark red lists with different rules for travelers. However, as of August 4, there are no green or amber list countries.

Arrivals from countries which are on the red list are only allowed to visit if they have a vaccination certificate, age 12 or over.

This list encompasses: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Italy, France, Slovakia, Switzerland, Greece, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, China (including Taiwan, Macau, and Hong Kong), Vatican City, Israel, Singapore, Slovenia, Japan, Gibraltar, Portugal, Romania, Lebanon, the UAE, Turkey, Jordan, Liechtenstein, Sweden, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bhutan, Fiji, Jamaica, Georgia, Faroe Islands, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Moldova, Vietnam, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Panama, Qatar, Cuba, Serbia, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, the U.K., and Ukraine.

The following U.S. states also on the red list: Washington, Oregon, Louisiana, West Virginia, North Dakota, Georgia, Texas, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Tennessee, Iowa, Nebraska, Ohio, South Carolina, New Mexico, Florida, Virginia, Maine, South Dakota, Michigan, Illinois, Delaware, Wisconsin, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, New Jersey, Minnesota, Connecticut, Alaska, New Hampshire, Maryland, New York, Rhode Island, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Vermont, California, Idaho, Kentucky, American Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Virgin Islands, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, Utah, Alabama, Colorado, Guam, Indiana, Montana and Kansas;

Every other country/region in the world is classified as dark red, and permission to enter Malta must be obtained from the Maltese Public Health Authorities by sending an email to with ‘’CONSIDER [Name of Country/State]’’ in the subject line. Arrivals must also have a negative PCR test, enter a 14-day quarantine and take another test on day 11/12.

The Netherlands—many EU countries are still high risk

The government has a list of safe countries–up to 8 August, there is no need for a negative Covid-19 test result or quarantine. After 8 August, anyone arriving from a safe list country, must show proof of vaccination, having had Covid-19 or a negative test result, and of course, this can be using the EU Digital Covid Certificate. Quarantine is not required and

Everyone must fill in a Health Declaration Form.

Inside the EU, safe list countries encompass the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. There is no need to show proof of vaccination, proof of recovery or a negative test result (this includes the Digital COVID Certificate).

Inside the EU, high-risk countries are effectively everyone else: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Cyprus, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, including Sicily, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. These arrivals need to show proof of vaccination, proof of recovery or a negative test result (this includes the EU Digital Covid Certificate).

Outside the EU, safe list countries are Albania, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Canada, China (the EU travel ban applies until China lifts entry restrictions on European travellers), China’s Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong and Macau, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Svalbard, Taiwan, Ukraine, the U.S. and Vatican City. Travelers must show proof of vaccination or a negative test result but no quarantine is required.

Very high-risk countries with variants of concern outside the EU are considered to be: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. Travel is effectively banned for these countries (with a few exceptions).

There are other very high-risk countries without variants of concern: Afghanistan, American Virgin Islands (the mandatory quarantine requirement applies from 27 August onwards, the negative Covid-19 test result requirement applies from 29 August onwards), Bangladesh, Botswana, Cuba, Dominica (the mandatory quarantine requirement applies from 27 August onwards, the negative Covid-19 test result requirement applies from 29 August onwards), Eswatini, Fiji, French Polynesia, Georgia, Guadeloupe, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran (the mandatory quarantine requirement applies from 27 August onwards, the negative Covid-19 test result requirement applies from 29 August onwards), Kazakhstan, Lesotho, Malaysia, Martinique, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the U.K.

There is a mandatory quarantine, the need for a negative Covid-19 test result–even if vaccinated–and you must have a good reason for travel.

Norway—EU+ travelers welcome

Norway has opened its borders to travelers from the EU/Schengen area if they are fully vaccinated or have had Covid-19. These travelers must have a verifiable EU Digital Covid Certificate (EUDCC). Unvaccinated children under the age of 12 can travel with their parents and won’t need to quarantine on their own.

Norway is operating a color-coded travel restriction map for everyone else–and quarantine applies to some countries. Norway has a very helpful tool to explain who is required to do what.

All arrivals must fill out an online travel form before arriving in the country.

Poland—vaccinated don’t need to quarantine

Borders are open for EU and EFTA nationals (and Turkey, via a special agreement) and anyone arriving won’t need to self-isolate for 10 days if they have a negative Covid-19 test result with them, taken no more than 48 hours before (either antigen or PCR).

Everyone arriving from outside the EU/Schengen area must quarantine for ten days but they can ‘test out’ after day seven of self-isolation. Anyone who can prove vaccination by a European-approved vaccine, can also enter freely without quarantine. Children under the age of 12, arriving with vaccinated adults can also enter freely.

Everyone who arrives must fill in a Traveler Location Card.

Portugal—EU+plus EU safe list allowed in

Flights from EU/Schengen areas and the EU’s safe list of countries are allowed to enter: European Union, Schengen Associated countries (Liechtenstein, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland), the U.K., Albania, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Canada, China, South Korea, the U.S., Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Montenegro, New Zealand, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Republic of Northern Macedonia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Taiwan, Ukraine and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao.

As per the government’s instructions, all passengers over 12 years should have an EU Digital Covid Certificate or must be in possession of a negative RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 test taken within 72 hours of boarding or a Rapid Antigen Test taken within 48 hours.

Romania—U.S. unvaccinated must now quarantine

If travelers have been vaccinated at least ten days before arrival, they do not need to quarantine, nor if they have had Covid-19 during the past 90 days.

As of 29 August, people coming from red countries are allowed to enter but must quarantine for 14 days if they are not vaccinated, even with proof of a negative Covid-19 test result: Anguilla, Aruba, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Botswana, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Eswatini, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Georgia, Great Britain, Gibraltar, Greece, Guam, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Jersey Island, Kazakstan, Kosovo, Libya, Lichtenstein, Malaysia, Maldives, Man Island, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, Northern Macedonia, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Seychelles, Saint Maarten, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, U.S. Virgin Islands, and the U.S. A negative Covid-19 test result will allow travelers to be released from self-isolation after day ten.

There is another list of yellow countries, from which travelers can arrive with proof of a negative Covid-19 test and not have to quarantine: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius & Saba, Brunei, Bulgaria, British Virgin Islands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greenland, Guatemala, Guernsay, Guyana, Honduras, Irak, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, the Netherlands, Palestina, Panama, Philippines, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Suriname, East Timor, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, and Turks & Caicos.

For travelers coming from countries not mentioned on either the red or yellow list, there are no restrictions to entry.

Anyone arriving must fill in a Romania Entry Declaration.

Slovakia—vaccinated exempt from quarantine

Every traveler needs to register using an online form and a new quarantine has been brought in for all arrivals into the country, although fully vaccinated people are exempt and don’t need to test either. The quarantine is for 14 days but people can ‘test out’ after day five with a negative result.

Slovenia—rules now the same for everyone

Slovenia now applies the same rules to all arrivals regardless of where they are traveling from but anyone arriving must have one of the following, in what is quite a complicated list of exact requirements:

  • an EU Digital Covid Certificate, with a digital QR code;
  • proof of vaccination;
  • a negative PCR test, no older than 72 hours;
  • a negative antigen test, no older than 48 hours; or
  • proof of having had Covid-19 in the past 6 months.

If anyone doesn’t have one of these documents, they must go into a period of self-isolation for 10 days but can ‘test out’ after day five (children under 15 are exempt from quarantine).

All arrivals must fill in a travel form.

Spain—vaccinated, EU and EU safe list can visit

Since 17 July, Spain has been open to vaccinated travelers, EU residents and anyone from an EU safe-list country.

Anyone arriving from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Namibia and South Africa must enter a ten-day quarantine.

Sweden—ban from non-EU countries extended to 31 October

There is a general entry ban for foreign EU+ citizens who are not able to present a vaccination certificate, a negative Covid-19 test result, or a certificate confirming the recovery from Covid-19. Anyone else, from a non-EU country is not allowed, except for exemptions, e.g. family members, visa holders (and then they need to show proof of a negative Covid-19 test result). This non-EU entry ban was extended at the end of August to run until 31 October.

Switzerland—vaccinated or negative testers can enter

Anyone who is vaccinated with one of the following vaccines is exempt for any further travel restrictions: Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Janssen/Johnson & Johnson, Sinopharm/BIBP and Sinovac. Anyone who has not been vaccinated or cannot prove they have had the virus, can enter Switzerland with a negative PCR test result (no older than 72 hours) or a negative antigen test (no older than 48 hours).

There are also theoretical restrictions from countries with worrying variants of Covid-19, although as of 31 August, there are currently zero countries on this list. It is still obligatory to fill in a passenger locator form if arriving by air.

England–red list countries closed to all but Brits

England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are each responsible for their own travel policies and England has been operating its own traffic light system of travel restrictions for overseas trips with different travel restrictions depending on the color of the country and if someone is vaccinated.

Everyone must complete a Passenger Locator Form, before arriving in the country.

People can travel to and from green list and green watchlist countries with a negative PCR test before travel and another one on day two. Green ‘watch list’ countries are green ones that are slightly more risky, in that the government might add quarantine to these arrivals if the epidemiological situation gets worse.

There is a wide ‘amber’ list of countries where people can travel, but they also need a negative Covid-19 test before departure and they will need to self-isolate for ten days upon arriving/return to England. These people need to take a PCR test on days 2 and 8. They can still use the test and release scheme to ‘test out’ of quarantine on day 5, as reported by The Guardian. This list currently includes most of the traditional EU holiday destinations and the U.S.

If people coming from the amber list are vaccinated, they must still arrive with a negative Covid-19 test result and take a test on or before day 2 after arrival.

Only British nationals and residents arriving from red list countries will be allowed into England, vaccinated or not, and everyone must quarantine for 10 days in a government-appointed hotel. A negative Covid-19 test is also necessary before departure.

Friday 3 September–this article was updated as the Latvian government is now accepting vaccine certificates from the U.S., Australia, Israel, New Zealand and Canada.

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